Research database

This Research Database has been developed by HCPC Europe to create an overview of the available research in the field of patient-friendly and adherence packaging. The database is for all members of HCPC Europe. Members can register as a user to get access to the database. Is your organisation not a member yet? Then please register your organisation as a member or contact our Executive Director Ger Standhardt for more information.


Poison prevention packaging act, 1970: A human factors standard

This paper, the first of two, gives an account of legislation and regulations made in the USA requiring hazardous pharmaceutical and other household products to be packaged in child-resistant containers. Human factors test procedures and standards, in terms of which child-resistance is defined, are described. An account is given of those hazardous substances which regulations in the USA require should be packed in child-resistant containers. The paper concludes with a description of the effects of the regulations and of child-resistant containers in reducing mortality and morbidity associated with the ingestion of poisonous substances, particularly aspirin, in the USA.

The second paper will briefly describe the effects of legislation made in England and Wales requiring certain pharmaceutical products to be packaged in child-resistant containers. It will also give an account of experiments, carried out in England and Sweden, describing the difficulties and inconvenience which the elderly and disabled experience when they attempt to use such containers.


An ergonomics evaluation of a reclosable pharmaceutical container with special reference to the elderly

The British Standard on reclosable child resistant medicine containers stales that adults should be able to open such containers but fails to consider the special problems of the elderly.

This study compared the ability of 100 elderly people to open a particular child resistant container (CRC) with their ability to open conventional drug containers. Information on drug taking and on contact with children under 5 years was also collected, and indicated that 62% of the subjects were taking prescribed tablets and, of these, 70% came into contact with children under 5 years.

The results showed that, without a demonstration, over 20% of attempts to open the CRCs resulted in failure and even after a demonstration 16 5% of attempts were unsuccessful. Taking the frequency of contact with children into account, it was concluded that the elderly come into contact with young children sufficiently often to justify their tablets being dispensed in CRCs. Consequently it was felt that the special problems of the elderly need consideration in the British Standard and in the design of child resistant containers.


Compliance with prescribed medication by elderly patients

Factors contributing to improper use of medication were examined in 40 patients aged 65 years or more who were in a home care program. They reported taking an average of 3.8 prescription medications and 1.2 nonprescription medications each. Pill counts showed that they were actually taking 57% of the prescribed medications; compliance decreased with the number of medications concurrently prescribed. Poor labelling instructions, difficulty opening childproof containers and misunderstanding of verbal instructions contributed to this problem. The patients tended to rely more on physicians than on pharmacists or visiting nurses for advice problems with medication.


Drug noncompliance in the elderly

Drug noncompliance is a major therapeutic problem for clinicians who deal with the elderly. This group receives 25% of all prescriptions, although comprising only 11% of the population. Clinicians overestimate their patients’ compliance by 100%. One-third of patients always comply, one-third sometimes comply, and one-third never comply. Noncompliance can be determined by pill counts, timing of refills, blood and urine drug levels, and observation of therapeutic effect. Contributing factors to noncompliance include vision, hearing, and memory impairment, side effects, drug interactions, fear of drug dependency, difficulty in obtaining of taking medication, complicated regimens, and lack of confidence in the clinician. Recommendations are given to aid the clinician in overcoming noncompliance. The elderly benefit from verbal instructions reinforced in writing, frequent visits, simplified regimens, clearly labeled, non-childproof containers, and involvement of family members. An illustrative case study is presented.



Poison prevention in the elderly

Poison exposures in the elderly are largely unintentional and, therefore, amenable to prevention techniques. Based on an analysis of the major causes of unintentional exposures in persons age 60 years and older, injury control strategies are applied to poisoning. These strategies address pre-event, event, and post-event phases. Ideas for specific changes to protect the elderly, especially in the areas of labeling and packaging, are presented.


Tamper-resistant packaging: Is it elder-resistant, too?

A tamper‐resistant package has an indicator or barrier to entry that, if breached or missing, can reasonably be expected to provide visible evidence to consumers that tampering has occurred. Regulations to implement tamper‐resistant packaging on all over‐the‐counter drugs and certain cosmetics began in February 1983. Tamper‐resistant packaging, like child‐resistant packaging, may impede access by the elderly and other adults who have mental, motor, and/or sensory disabilities. This article describes: 1) the reasons for the increasing use of over‐the‐counter medications in the prevention and treatment of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly; 2) the types of difficulties encountered in opening tamper‐resistant packaging; 3) the causes of these inaccessibility problems; 4) the methods to correct them; and 5) testing procedures to determine whether the existing designs of tamper‐resistant packaging are accessible by the elderly and adults with selected disabilities. Testing of individual types of tamper‐resistant packaging, multiple types of tamper‐resistant packagings on the same container, and combinations of tamper‐resistant packagings and child‐resistant packagings on groups of normal elderly people and those with selected disabilities is necessary to guarantee accessibility to the growing number of therapeutically efficacious nonprescription medications used by these populations.


Factors contributing to medication noncompliance in elderly public housing tenants

A study examined the extent and correlates of noncompliance in 155 predominantly elderly public housing tenants. Data were gathered through in-home interviews; only data from tenants taking prescribed medications on a regularly scheduled basis (n= 140) were analyzed. Noncompliance was significantly (p<0.05) associated with taking more than five prescribed medications, an inability to read prescription and auxiliary labels, and difficulty opening flip-off type medication container lids.

The results indicate that attempts to reduce the total number of prescription drug products used in these elderly residents by carefully scrutinizing the need for each prescription drug may enhance compliance. Pharmacists could assist in the detection of elderly patients at risk for medication noncompliance (five or more total prescription medications) by assessing the patients’ ability to read labels on prescription containers for all new drug additions and refills, and by having them try to open a flip-off container lid.


Tamper-resistant yet convenient: solving a design dilemma

Manufacturers of Over-the-Counter (OTC) drugs and some consumer products are in a quandary. On the other hand, they must make packaging, containers, and closures secure enough to be tamper-resistant and child safe. At the same time, the Consumer Product Safety Commission has challenged them to create packaging that is easy for the elderly and handicapped to open. Tampering indications based on sight, sound and smell are the latest developments.


Opening medicine containers

In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb–5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a “push-off” top and suppository packs. 46%–(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients’ estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.