Research database

This Research Database has been developed by HCPC Europe to create an overview of the available research in the field of patient-friendly and adherence packaging. The database is for all members of HCPC Europe. Members can register as a user to get access to the database. Is your organisation not a member yet? Then please register your organisation as a member or contact our Executive Director Ger Standhardt for more information.


Evaluation of multi-dose repackaging for individual patients in long-term care institutions: Savings from the perspective of statutory health insurance in Germany

Aims and objectives: Elderly people often have difficulty adhering to multi‐drug medication regimens. The current study aimed to evaluate whether multi‐dose repackaging for individual patients reduces medication expenses from the perspective of statutory health insurance in Germany.

Setting: A total of 307 residents, mean age 76.8 years, median age 80 years, from four long‐term care facilities were included in the prospective pre—post study conducted from September 2004 to December 2005. Minimum periods of 9 months prior to and 9 months following the introduction of multi‐dose packaging were compared at the individual level with respect to the expenses for medications that were repackaged in weekly blister packs.

Method: The main outcome measure was savings in medication expenses. Statistical evaluation was carried out using the program Rversion 2.1.0. Adjustments were made for effects of age and con currently increasing morbidity in so far as number of prescriptions were held constant at the individual level.

Key findings: In the subset of 181 people included in this analysis, approximately 6.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1–7.0%; P < 0.001) of expenses for medication were saved: 2.0% (1.6–2.3%; P < 0.001) was due to price differences and 4.1% (3.2–5.0%; P < 0.001) to reduced wastage of prescribed medication. The probability of being prescribed a generic compared with a brand‐name medication was significantly lower prior to the introduction of repackaging (0.92, 0.89–0.94; P < 0.01), although this did not have any effect on turnover of medications (0.996, 0.988–1.005; P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Significant savings in medication expenses were found. Nonetheless, cost savings should not be the sole objective in reorganising drug dispensing.


Multi-dose drug dispensing and inappropriate drug use: A nationwide register-based study of over 700 000 elderly

Objective: To investigate whether the use of multi-dose drug dispensing is associated with potentially inappropriate drug use (IDU).

Design: Cross-sectional nationwide register-based study.

Setting: Sweden.

Subjects: People aged ≥75 years registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during October–December 2005. Main outcome measures. Potentially IDU, i.e. anticholinergic drugs, long-acting benzodiazepines, concurrent use of three or more psychotropic drugs, and combinations of drugs that may lead to potentially serious drug–drug interactions (DDIs).

Results: After adjustment for age and number of dispensed drugs, any IDU, anticholinergic drugs, and three or more psychotropic drugs were associated with multi-dose drug dispensing, whereas the opposite relationship prevailed for long-acting benzodiazepines among women and potentially serious DDIs in both men and women. Among the subjects aged 75–79 years, multi-dose drug dispensing was even more strongly associated with any IDU, anticholinergic drugs, three or more psychotropic drugs in both men and women, and long-acting benzodiazepines among men.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that multi-dose users may be more exposed to potential IDU. However, multi-dose users seem to have a lower probability of potentially serious DDIs. Future research on multi-dose drug dispensing is necessary to ensure a high quality of drug therapy within this system.