Research database

This Research Database has been developed by HCPC Europe to create an overview of the available research in the field of patient-friendly and adherence packaging. The database is for all members of HCPC Europe. Members can register as a user to get access to the database. Is your organisation not a member yet? Then please register your organisation as a member or contact our Executive Director Ger Standhardt for more information.


Evaluation of multi-dose repackaging for individual patients in long-term care institutions: Savings from the perspective of statutory health insurance in Germany

Aims and objectives: Elderly people often have difficulty adhering to multi‐drug medication regimens. The current study aimed to evaluate whether multi‐dose repackaging for individual patients reduces medication expenses from the perspective of statutory health insurance in Germany.

Setting: A total of 307 residents, mean age 76.8 years, median age 80 years, from four long‐term care facilities were included in the prospective pre—post study conducted from September 2004 to December 2005. Minimum periods of 9 months prior to and 9 months following the introduction of multi‐dose packaging were compared at the individual level with respect to the expenses for medications that were repackaged in weekly blister packs.

Method: The main outcome measure was savings in medication expenses. Statistical evaluation was carried out using the program Rversion 2.1.0. Adjustments were made for effects of age and con currently increasing morbidity in so far as number of prescriptions were held constant at the individual level.

Key findings: In the subset of 181 people included in this analysis, approximately 6.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1–7.0%; P < 0.001) of expenses for medication were saved: 2.0% (1.6–2.3%; P < 0.001) was due to price differences and 4.1% (3.2–5.0%; P < 0.001) to reduced wastage of prescribed medication. The probability of being prescribed a generic compared with a brand‐name medication was significantly lower prior to the introduction of repackaging (0.92, 0.89–0.94; P < 0.01), although this did not have any effect on turnover of medications (0.996, 0.988–1.005; P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Significant savings in medication expenses were found. Nonetheless, cost savings should not be the sole objective in reorganising drug dispensing.


Preliminary investigation of patient information leaflets as package inserts

In the United Kingdom, patient information leaflets (PILs) are now supplied with all medicines licensed or re‐licensed since January, 1994. This means that, by 1998, all medicines will come with one of these detailed leaflets inside the pack. In a preliminary investigation of the impact of these leaflets, 117 elderly inpatients were questioned on their experience of PILs prior to admission. Ninety‐one (78 per cent) said they had received a PIL and 57 (49 per cent) had read one. The main reasons for not reading a leaflet were the perceived difficulty in understanding and being put off by excessive information. Of the patients who had read a leaflet, 23 (40 per cent) reported difficulty in reading the small print and 26 (46 per cent) said they had difficulty understanding the content. Thirteen patients (23 per cent) reported having to seek help with reading a leaflet. Forty‐two of those who had read a leaflet rated it as helpful. Eleven patients said they had asked for advice from their doctor or pharmacist as a result of reading a leaflet. Nine patients said the leaflet had caused some anxiety, with two stopping their medicine as a result. The move to universal PILs in patient packs is a major development in the provision of information to patients about medicines. This study suggests that elderly patients have problems relating to understanding the content of PILs and reading the size of print used in these leaflets.


The effect of one-dose package on medication adherence for the elderly care in Japan

Deterioration of the medication adherence for elderly could result in wasteful medical expenditure in a long-term span as well as aggravating the patient’s medical condition.

Objective: This study surveyed the effect of one-dose package medication made up by a pharmacist on the patient’s behavior towards medication, what is expected to be one of the measures to improve the medication adherence for elderly.

Methods: With support activity of the Pharmacist Association in Ueda-city in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, the survey form of one-dose package was sent to 86 pharmacy directors located in Ueda-city.

Results: The most frequent reasons of one dose packaging was “Patient’s request” though, “Large number of doses”, “Prevent the improper drug use” and “Improved medication adherence” which is considered that the pharmacists are willing to utilize one dose package for patient’s care in order to improve the medication adherence were chosen as well. The influences of one dose package for patient’s medication adherence were very positive, and most answers indicated that medication adherence was improved.

Conclusion: It is noticed that the pharmacists were willing to dispense one dose packaging by own decision, not physician’s order, in order to improve the medication adherence, prevent improper drug use and optimize the medication therapy. It is also noticed that there are great improvement of patient’s compliance by one dose package, and patients felt advantage to reduce the improper drug use as well.


Problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging

Medicine packages can cause problems in daily practice, especially among older people. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging and to investigate how patients manage these problems. A convenience sample of 30 community pharmacies participated in this study. They selected a systematic sample of 30 patients over 65 years old with a recent omeprazole prescription, and a questionnaire was administered by telephone for at least 10 patients per pharmacy. A total of 317 patients completed the questionnaire. They received their omeprazole in a bottle (n = 179, 56.5%), push-through blister pack (n = 102, 32.2%) or peel-off blister pack (n = 36, 11.4%). Some 28.4% of all patients experienced one or more problems with opening their omeprazole packaging; most problems occurred with peel-off blisters (n = 24, 66.7% of all respondents using peel-off blisters), followed by push-through blisters (n = 34, 33.3%) and finally bottles (n = 32, 17.9%). The risk of experiencing problems with peel-off blisters and push-through blisters was higher [relative risk 3.7 (95% confidence interval 2.5-5.5) and 1.9 (1.2-2.8), respectively] than the risk of experiencing problems with opening bottles. Two-thirds of respondents reported management strategies for their problems. Most were found for problems opening bottles (n = 24, 75%), followed by push-through blisters (n = 24, 70.6%) and peel-off blisters (n = 14, 58.3%). One in four patients over 65 experienced difficulties opening their omeprazole packaging and not all of them reported a management strategy for their problems. Manufacturers are advised to pay more attention to the user-friendliness of product packaging. In addition, it is important that pharmacy staff clearly instruct patients on how to open their medicine packaging, or assist them in choosing the most appropriate packaging.
(PDF) Problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging.